COVID-19 AND AIR POLLUTION: SEVERITY CHOCKS THE THROAT OF REALITY By Suchismita Ghoshal

A prominent correlation has been found in research studies between air pollution and Covid-19 morbidities and mortalities since the outbreak of the pandemic in February, 2020, covid-19 and the facts related to it have shocked us several times. Now the viral spread exposes the assistance of airborne particles to accelerate its power of spreadability. The interlink between respiratory disease and air pollution is neither a fact of joke nor a rare case. How airborne particles have always been involved in causing severe respiratory syndromes is published. WHO reports say, air pollution is the reason behind 4.2 million premature deaths annually. HOW DOES AIR POLLUTION CONTRIBUTE TO THE SPREAD OF COVID-19? During the SARS pandemic in 2003, an ecological study revealed a notable interconnection between SARS-affected deaths and ambient air pollutionary particles in several parts of China, Hong Kong and Canada. Novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) gives the almost similar symptoms like SARS of 2003 and it can be predicted that a similar situation may be found in this time too after closely looking at the casualties caused by covid-19. We have assumed the air pollution adds up to the suffering of the disease acutely. The airborne transmission of the covid-19 is responsible for an expanding rate of thromboembolic [definition : Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. This type of embolism is known as a thromboembolism.] events in severe patients. The enormous reason behind environmental causes of disease and premature deaths in the world is air pollution and acute respiratory diseases like Bronchitis, Asthma, Pneumonia and COPD have been affected through the ambient particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter induces the proinflammatory and thrombogenic symptoms through the injection of oxidative stress by its chemical compounds and metals. The recent study has come out with a head-stirring fact which says environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRS) in the PM, is a combined result of combustion sources that strongly holds its role in worsening the disease through lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In most of the cases, the presence of bacteria and viruses are the main factors that provoke the airway harm and excessiveness of infection. Air pollution also represents itself as a driving factor for virus infection diseases like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Influenza A & B parainfluenza virus type 3, pneumonia and influenza like illness. A SHORT VIEW ON PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) : Related intensely with the viral infection of covid-19, its morbidity and mortality and also in severity towards the cardiorespiratory events like Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and thrombosis, this atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is originated by a several range of natural and anthropogenic sources . The composition of particulate matter includes a combination of solid and liquid particles that reside in the air and change their size and chemical components like nitrates, sulphates, organic compounds, corbon, biological compounds and metals. The high concentration of PM in the air, could signify the early signal of covid-19 where the novel coronavirus RNA is said to be existing in the outdoor PMs by the research team of Setti L, Passarini F, de Gennaro G, barbieri P, Pallavicini A, Ruscio M, Piscitelli P, Colao A, Miani A etc in their preparatory evidence. THE ROLE OF NITROGEN DI-OXIDE IN SPREADING THE COVID-19 : NO2 is already a familiar gas that is responsible for its presence in respiratory tract syndromes. It actively causes severity to allergic infections, Asthma, Eczema etc. In ITALY, SPAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY, USA and CHINA , a very disturbing fact has been revealed which revolves around the presence of NO2 with an excessively high level of concentration. It has proactively helped in increasing the extremity of fatality in covid-19 disease. Now, we can state that NO2 may be one of the crucial activators in the spreading caused by covid-19 disease. CONCLUSION : Many cities have been locked down in different phases of pandemic in the entire world and it has been evidently true that the situation that caged the humans and regulated the uses of vehicles and fuels has reduced the pollution to a greater extent. Now the fact is that if governments look for a future with a sustainable society as well as a pollution free and disease free generation, it should strenuously work on monitoring the execution of environmental betterment. PMs and NO2 must have been the villain elements to expand the novel coronavirus disease but a global approach to reduce the pollution must add many benefitting outcomes. REFERENCES : 1)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444490/ 2) https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrombosis#:~:text=Thrombosis%20(from%20Ancient%20Greek%20%CE%B8%CF%81%CF%8C%CE%BC%CE%B2%CF%89%CF%83%CE%B9%CF%82,blood%20through%20the%20circulatory%20system.&text=This%20type%20of%20embolism%20is%20known%20as%20a%20thromboembolism. 3)https://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12931-020-01479-w